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From a Young-Earth Creationist perspective, dinosaurs coexisted beside humans for over 1,000 years after their creation in the book of Genesis, prior to the Flood. This view is entirely consistent with the Bible, indeed fire-breathing dinosaurs, both flying and deep-sea dwelling, are repeatedly referred to throughout the Old Testament even after the Flood. Brachiosaurs are referenced in Job 40, plesiosaurs in Job 41 (among numerous places including Genesis 1:21), and fiery flying serpents (Heb. saraph--possibly archaeopteryx?) are clearly referred to not only during the Mosaic Exodus (Numbers 21:6-8; Deuteronomy 8:15) but also the time of Isaiah (Isaiah 14:29, 30:26).

Attempts by Biblical minimalists to explain away these passages as referring to crocodiles in Job 40 or elephants in Job 41 are patently incompatible with the text. In Job 40, e.g., the herbivorous brachiosaur, which the Bible calls a behemoth, is said to move its tail like a cedar (v. 17), one of the tallest trees on Earth, and to drink up rivers (v. 23), neither of which describes any land mammal alive today. Similarly in Job 41, the deep-sea-dwelling plesiosaur which the Bible calls leviathan is said to have air-tight scales (vv. 15-16), the ability to breathe fire (vv. 18-21), and complete invulnerability to all weapons known at the time (vv. 26-29). In Psalms 104:26 the leviathan is said to play with ships. Its implied size and abilities, needless to say, do not fit those of any species known today.

Have Any Modern Dinosaur Fossils Been Found?

Fossilization is a rare process that does not occur so much through gradual processes as rapid, catastrophic processes. A global Flood coupled with underwater volcanism would have fossilized life worldwide, but dinosaurs living after this point would be less likely to be fossilized. In spite of this, evidence such as carbon dating of soft tissue reveals that dinosaurs are only thousands of years old, not millions. Furthermore, dinosaurs have been found in layers younger than those acceptable to academia. When this occurs, they are termed zombie taxa (alternately 'reworked' or 'remanie' fossils) and considered by academia to have been washed out of their original sediment layers and redeposited in different layers--a convenient way for academia to reject the evidence of dinosaurs being younger than the theory of evolution proposes.

What Happened to the Dinosaurs?

The primary distinction between modern reptiles and the dinosaurs, which has resulted in attempts by academia to classify them as related more closely to birds than reptiles, is that many dinosaurs had different hip structure than today's reptiles. Dinosaurs are classified in two ways, as lizard-hipped (saurischia) or bird-hipped (ornothischia).[1] The ability of dinosaurs such as the infamous T-Rex to tower above other creatures was due to this difference in hip structure from modern reptiles.

At the time of the Fall in the Garden of Eden, God changed the method of locomotion for land-walking dinosaurs so that they would be cursed to crawl in the dirt, a far cry from their previous, towering status seen from fossils such as allosaurus and tyrannosaurus rex.

Genesis 3:14 ¶ And the LORD <Y@hovah> God <'elohiym> said <'amar> unto the serpent, <nachash> Because thou <'attah> hast done <`asah> this, thou art cursed <'arar> above all cattle, <b@hemah> and above every beast <chay> of the field; <sadeh> upon thy belly <gachown> shalt thou go, <yalak> and dust <`aphar> shalt thou eat <'akal> all the days <yowm> of thy life: <chay>

Nonetheless, some dinosaurs such as brachiosaurus appear to have remained for a short time after the Flood. The deep-sea-dwelling plesiosaur species on the other hand is Biblically prophesied to remain until the end of time, and it thus appears that at least one is still living somewhere deep underwater.

Isaiah 27:1 ¶ In that day <yowm> the LORD <Y@hovah> with his sore <qasheh> and great <gadowl> and strong <chazaq> sword <chereb> shall punish <paqad> leviathan <livyathan> the piercing <bariyach> serpent, <nachash> even leviathan <livyathan> that crooked <`aqallathown> serpent; <nachash> and he shall slay <harag> the dragon <tanniyn> that is in the sea. <yam>

Isaiah 27:12 And it shall come to pass in that day, <yowm> that the LORD <Y@hovah> shall beat off <chabat> from the channel <shibbol> of the river <nahar> unto the stream <nachal> of Egypt, <Mitsrayim> and ye shall be gathered <laqat> one <'echad> by one, <'echad> O ye children <ben> of Israel. <Yisra'el>
13 And it shall come to pass in that day, <yowm> that the great <gadowl> trumpet <showphar> shall be blown, <taqa`> and they shall come <bow'> which were ready to perish <'abad> in the land <'erets> of Assyria, <'Ashshuwr> and the outcasts <nadach> in the land <'erets> of Egypt, <Mitsrayim> and shall worship <shachah> the LORD <Y@hovah> in the holy <qodesh> mount <har> at Jerusalem. <Y@ruwshalaim>

Size Reduction After the Flood

See also Canopy Theory

The dinosaurs simply microevolved, becoming smaller, after the Flood, given the reduced atmospheric thickness and oxygen levels. Oxygen levels were once 50% higher than today's levels, resulting in larger insects such as dragonflies with 12 foot wingspans.[2]

Perhaps spurred by Carl Baugh's newly patented hyperbaric biosphere in 2001[3], scientists discovered that hyperbaric experiments actually do reproduce the giant insects of ages past through imitating ancient earth's higher oxygen levels (30-35% compared to 21% level today)[4], giving serious credence to the long-time Creationist claim that a vapor canopy resulted in higher oxygen levels and thus gigantism.[5]

"For the giant insects that roamed Earth 300 million years ago, there was something special in the air. A higher concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere let dragonflies sometimes grow to the size of hawks, and some millipede-like bugs reached some six feet (two meters) in length, a new study suggests... During the late Carboniferous period (354 to 290 million years ago), however, oxygen levels were much higher than they are now, partly because coal swamps that leaked the gas into the air were very common. 'Back then, there was 31 to 35 percent oxygen in the air,' study lead author Kaiser said. 'Now we have about 21 percent.' That meant insects needed smaller quantities of air to meet their oxygen demands, allowing the creatures to grow much larger."

-Hope Hamashige, National Geographic, 2007[6]

Cockroaches were, in 2010, discovered to be an exception to this, since their tracheal tubes, used for breathing, are different from other insects.[7] The research also indicates laying of larvae in water developed in insects to avoid oxygen overdose, since adult insects can control their oxygen intake, whereas juveniles are at risk of oxygen overdose - and there's less oxygen in water.[8]

Examples of Modern Dinosaur Descendants

Examples of modern dinosaur descendants include the komodo dragon, basilisk lizard, horned lizard, monitor lizard, iguana, and frill-necked lizard. Similar features can be seen in modern reptiles as in dinosaurs; for example the horned lizard and frill-necked lizard contain frilled neck structures similar to the ancient triceratops.

Hebraic Words for Dinosaurs in the Bible


The first mention of dinosaurs is in Genesis 1:21. Although the KJV translated Hebrew word tanniyn as "whales" centuries ago, it actually refers to oceanic dinosaurs, or as the KJV translates it in Lamentations 4:13, 'sea monsters.' The leviathan is a type of tanniyn. (Isaiah 27:1; Job 41) For its presence in the fossil record, see the plesiosaurs including the pliosaurus (e.g. Predator X).[9]

Genesis 1:21 And God <'elohiym> created <bara'> great <gadowl> whales, <tanniyn> and every living <chay> creature <nephesh> that moveth, <ramas> which the waters <mayim> brought forth abundantly, <sharats> after their kind, <miyn> and every winged <kanaph> fowl <`owph> after his kind: <miyn> and God <'elohiym> saw <ra'ah> that it was good. <towb>

Lamentations 4:3 Even the sea monsters <tanniyn> draw out <chalats> the breast <shad>, they give suck <yanaq> to their young ones <guwr>: the daughter <bath> of my people <`am> is become cruel <'akzar>, like the ostriches <ya`en> in the wilderness <midbar>.

This same word tanniyn is elsewhere translated by the KJV as dragons, which is the typical way the KJV translates it. The KJV translates tanniyn as "dragon" or "dragons" 21 of the 28 times it is used in the Old Testament.[10]

Psalms 74:13 Thou didst divide <parar> the sea <yam> by thy strength <`oz>: thou brakest <shabar> the heads <ro'sh> of the dragons <tanniyn> in the waters <mayim>.

Deuteronomy 32:33 Their wine <yayin> is the poison <chemah> of dragons <tanniyn>, and the cruel <'akzar> venom <ro'sh> of asps <pethen>.

Nehemiah 2:13 And I went out <yatsa'> by night <layil> by the gate <sha`ar> of the valley <gay'>, even before <paniym> the dragon <tanniyn> well <`ayin> <`Eyn Tanniym>, and to the dung <'ashpoth> port <sha`ar>, and viewed <sabar> <shabar> the walls <chowmah> of Jerusalem <Y@ruwshalaim>, which were broken down <parats>, and the gates <sha`ar> thereof were consumed <'akal> with fire <'esh>.

The term tanniyn is also translated serpent several times in Exodus 7 as the creature Moses fled from. Given that Moses led troops into battle and early in his life even killed an Egyptian slavemaster in hand-to-hand combat, it is questionable whether a mere serpent could have made him run away. However, a translation of dragon, as occurs elsewhere throughout the KJV, or dinosaur, would make more sense.

Exodus 7:9 When Pharaoh <Par`oh> shall speak <dabar> unto you, saying <'amar>, Shew <nathan> a miracle <mowpheth> for you: then thou shalt say <'amar> unto Aaron <'Aharown>, Take <laqach> thy rod <matteh>, and cast <shalak> it before <paniym> Pharaoh <Par`oh>, and it shall become a serpent <tanniyn>.

Exodus 7:10 And Moses <Mosheh> and Aaron <'Aharown> went in <bow'> unto Pharaoh <Par`oh>, and they did <`asah> so as the LORD <Y@hovah> had commanded <tsavah>: and Aaron <'Aharown> cast down <shalak> his rod <matteh> before <paniym> Pharaoh <Par`oh>, and before <paniym> his servants <`ebed>, and it became a serpent <tanniyn>.

Exodus 7:12 For they cast down <shalak> every man <'iysh> his rod <matteh>, and they became serpents <tanniyn>: but Aaron's <'Aharown> rod <matteh> swallowed up <bala`> their rods <matteh>.


The leviathan as seen from Isaiah 27 is a specific type of tanniyn, a huge underwater serpent. It is translated from the Hebrew word livyathan which is used just 6 times in the Old Testament.[11]

Isaiah 27:1 ¶ In that day <yowm> the LORD <Y@hovah> with his sore <qasheh> and great <gadowl> and strong <chazaq> sword <chereb> shall punish <paqad> leviathan <livyathan> the piercing <bariyach> serpent <nachash>, even leviathan <livyathan> that crooked <`aqallathown> serpent <nachash>; and he shall slay <harag> the dragon <tanniyn> that is in the sea <yam>.

It is best described in Job 41, where it is said to be impervious to all ancient weapons at the time, to breathe fire, to have air-tight scales, and to dwell in the depths of the sea. As seen from v. 31 it may have also left some kind of disturbance in the ocean like the squid.

Job 41:1 ¶ Canst thou draw out <mashak> leviathan <livyathan> with an hook <chakkah>? or his tongue <lashown> with a cord <chebel> which thou lettest down <shaqa`>?
2 Canst thou put <suwm> an hook <'agmown> into his nose <'aph>? or bore <naqab> his jaw <l@chiy> through with a thorn <chowach>?
3 Will he make many <rabah> supplications <tachanuwn> unto thee? will he speak <dabar> soft <rak> words unto thee?
4 Will he make <karath> a covenant <b@riyth> with thee? wilt thou take <laqach> him for a servant <`ebed> for ever <`owlam>?
5 Wilt thou play <sachaq> with him as with a bird <tsippowr>? or wilt thou bind <qashar> him for thy maidens <na`arah>?
6 Shall the companions <chabbar> make a banquet <karah> of him? shall they part <chatsah> him among the merchants <K@na`aniy>?
7 Canst thou fill <male'> his skin <`owr> with barbed irons <sukkah>? or his head <ro'sh> with fish <dag> spears <ts@latsal>?
8 Lay <suwm> thine hand <kaph> upon him, remember <zakar> the battle, <milchamah> do no more. <yacaph>
9 Behold, the hope <towcheleth> of him is in vain: <kazab> shall not one be cast down <tuwl> even at the sight <mar'eh> of him?
10 None is so fierce <'akzar> that dare stir him up <`uwr>: <`uwr> who then is able to stand <yatsab> before <paniym> me?
11 ¶ Who hath prevented <qadam> me, that I should repay <shalam> him? whatsoever is under the whole heaven <shamayim> is mine.
12 I will not conceal <charash> his parts, <bad> nor his power <g@buwrah>, <dabar> nor his comely <chiyn> proportion. <`erek>
13 Who can discover <galah> the face <paniym> of his garment <l@buwsh>? or who can come <bow'> to him with his double <kephel> bridle <recen>?
14 Who can open <pathach> the doors <deleth> of his face <paniym>? his teeth <shen> are terrible <'eymah> round about. <cabiyb>
15 His scales <magen> <'aphiyq> are his pride, <ga`avah> shut up together <cagar> as with a close <tsar> seal. <chowtham>
16 One <'echad> is so near <nagash> to another, <'echad> that no air <ruwach> can come <bow'> between them.
17 They are joined <dabaq> one <'iysh> to another, <'ach> they stick together, <lakad> that they cannot be sundered. <parad>
18 By his neesings <`atiyshah> a light <'owr> doth shine, <halal> and his eyes <`ayin> are like the eyelids <`aph`aph> of the morning. <shachar>
19 Out of his mouth <peh> go <halak> burning lamps, <lappiyd> and sparks <kiydowd> of fire <'esh> leap out. <malat>
20 Out of his nostrils <n@chiyr> goeth <yatsa'> smoke, <`ashan> as out of a seething <naphach> pot <duwd> or caldron. <'agmown>
21 His breath <nephesh> kindleth <lahat> coals, <gechel> and a flame <lahab> goeth out <yatsa'> of his mouth. <peh>
22 In his neck <tsavva'r> remaineth <luwn> strength, <`oz> and sorrow <d@'abah> is turned into joy <duwts> before <paniym> him.
23 The flakes <mappal> of his flesh <basar> are joined together: <dabaq> they are firm <yatsaq> in themselves; they cannot be moved. <mowt>
24 His heart <leb> is as firm <yatsaq> as a stone; <'eben> yea, as hard <yatsaq> as a piece <pelach> of the nether <tachtiy> millstone.
25 When he raiseth up <s@'eth> himself, the mighty <'ayil> are afraid: <guwr> by reason of breakings <sheber> they purify <chata'> themselves.
26 The sword <chereb> of him that layeth <nasag> at him cannot hold: <quwm> the spear, <chaniyth> the dart, <macca`> nor the habergeon. <shiryown>
27 He esteemeth <chashab> iron <barzel> as straw, <teben> and brass <n@chuwshah> as rotten <riqqabown> wood. <`ets>
28 The arrow <ben> <qesheth> cannot make him flee: <barach> slingstones <'eben> <qela`> are turned <haphak> with him into stubble. <qash>
29 Darts <towthach> are counted <chashab> as stubble: <qash> he laugheth <sachaq> at the shaking <ra`ash> of a spear. <kiydown>
30 Sharp <chadduwd> stones <cheres> are under him: he spreadeth <raphad> sharp pointed things <charuwts> upon the mire. <tiyt>
31 He maketh the deep <m@tsowlah> to boil <rathach> like a pot: <ciyr> he maketh <suwm> the sea <yam> like a pot of ointment. <merqachah>
32 He maketh a path <nathiyb> to shine <'owr> after <'achar> him; one would think <chashab> the deep <t@howm> to be hoary. <seybah>
33 Upon earth <`aphar> there is not his like, <moshel> who is made <`asah> without <b@liy> fear. <chath>
34 He beholdeth <ra'ah> all high <gaboahh> things: he is a king <melek> over all the children <ben> of pride. <shachats>

If there was any doubt about the size and power of the leviathan, it is elsewhere said to play with ships.

Psalms 104:26 There go <halak> the ships <'oniyah>: there is that leviathan <livyathan>, whom thou hast made <yatsar> to play <sachaq> therein.


The behemoth or Hebrew word b@hemowth was a huge, ancient creature during Job's time, and Job may be the earliest book of the Bible written, presumably around the time of Abraham given Job's great age. The word is only used once in the entire Bible, in Job ch. 40.[12]

According to the passage, it was a huge herbivore that ate grass like an ox and lived in the fens, known for a massive belly, long tail, and thick bones. Its huge size can be seen from the fact that it had a tail like a cedar, one of the tallest trees on Earth. No land mammal alive today has such a tail, which has led to hypothesis that it was the brachiosaur, one of the dinosaurs. It was said to be capable of drinking so much it thought it could drink up rivers, and to get food from the mountains, possibly a reference to a long neck.

Job 40:15 ¶ Behold now behemoth, <b@hemowth> which I made <`asah> with thee; he eateth <'akal> grass <chatsiyr> as an ox. <baqar>
16 Lo now, his strength <koach> is in his loins, <mothen> and his force <'own> is in the navel <shariyr> of his belly. <beten>
17 He moveth <chaphets> his tail <zanab> like a cedar: <'erez> the sinews <giyd> of his stones <pachad> are wrapped together. <sarag>
18 His bones <`etsem> are as strong <'aphiyq> pieces of brass; <n@chuwshah> his bones <gerem> are like bars <m@tiyl> of iron. <barzel>
19 He is the chief <re'shiyth> of the ways <derek> of God: <'el> he that made <`asah> him can make <nagash> his sword <chereb> to approach <nagash> unto him.
20 Surely the mountains <har> bring him forth <nasa'> food, <buwl> where all the beasts <chay> of the field <sadeh> play. <sachaq>
21 He lieth <shakab> under the shady trees, <tse'el> in the covert <cether> of the reed, <qaneh> and fens. <bitstsah>
22 The shady trees <tse'el> cover <cakak> him with their shadow; <tselel> the willows <`arab> of the brook <nachal> compass him about. <cabab>
23 Behold, he drinketh up <`ashaq> a river, <nahar> and hasteth <chaphaz> not: he trusteth <batach> that he can draw up <giyach> Jordan <Yarden> into his mouth. <peh>
24 He taketh <laqach> it with his eyes: <`ayin> his nose <'aph> pierceth through <naqab> snares. <mowqesh>


Furthermore, there are fiery flying serpents mentioned, which at one point the KJV translates as cockatrice. The Hebrew word is saraph, elsewhere translated as seraphim, and it is used 7 times in the Bible.[13]

Here are the places where the Bible uses this term. They were said to have six wings in Isaiah 6:2.

Numbers 21:6 And the LORD <Y@hovah> sent <shalach> fiery <saraph> serpents <nachash> among the people <`am>, and they bit <nashak> the people <`am>; and much <rab> people <`am> of Israel <Yisra'el> died <muwth>.

Numbers 21:8 And the LORD <Y@hovah> said <'amar> unto Moses <Mosheh>, Make <`asah> thee a fiery serpent <saraph>, and set <suwm> it upon a pole <nec>: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten <nashak>, when he looketh <ra'ah> upon it, shall live <chayay>.

Deuteronomy 8:15 Who led <yalak> thee through that great <gadowl> and terrible <yare'> wilderness <midbar>, wherein were fiery <saraph> serpents <nachash>, and scorpions <`aqrab>, and drought <tsimma'own>, where there was no water <mayim>; who brought thee forth <yatsa'> water <mayim> out of the rock <tsuwr> of flint <challamiysh>;

Isaiah 6:2 Above <ma`al> it stood <`amad> the seraphims <saraph>: each one <'echad> had six <shesh> wings <kanaph>; with twain <sh@nayim> he covered <kacah> his face <paniym>, and with twain <sh@nayim> he covered <kacah> his feet <regel>, and with twain <sh@nayim> he did fly <`uwph>.

Isaiah 6:6 Then flew <`uwph> one <'echad> of the seraphims <saraph> unto me, having a live coal <ritspah> in his hand <yad>, which he had taken <laqach> with the tongs <melqach> from off the altar <mizbeach>:

Isaiah 14:29 Rejoice <samach> not thou, whole Palestina <P@lesheth>, because the rod <shebet> of him that smote <nakah> thee is broken <shabar>: for out of the serpent's <nachash> root <sheresh> shall come forth <yatsa'> a cockatrice <tsepha`>, and his fruit <p@riy> shall be a fiery <saraph> flying <`uwph> serpent <saraph>.

Isaiah 30:6 The burden <massa'> of the beasts <b@hemah> of the south <negeb>: into the land <'erets> of trouble <tsarah> and anguish <tsowq>, from whence come the young <labiy'> and old lion <layish>, the viper <'eph`eh> and fiery <saraph> flying <`uwph> serpent <saraph>, they will carry <nasa'> their riches <chayil> upon the shoulders <katheph> of young asses <`ayir>, and their treasures <'owtsar> upon the bunches <dabbesheth> of camels <gamal>, to a people <`am> that shall not profit <ya`al> them.


The Hebrew word translated serpents in a number of these passages, nachash, is also been used at times to refer to dinosaurs when used in conjunction with certain terms. For example, 'bariyach nachash' or 'aqallathown nachash' (piercing/crooked serpent) consistently refers to leviathans and tanniyn (Isaiah 27:1; Job 26:13). Elsewhere it is used to refer to 'saraph uwph nachash' (fiery flying serpents) as in Numbers 21:6-9; Deuteronomy 8:15; and Isaiah 14:29. As such, it appears to be a catch-all term referring to reptiles, since elsewhere it appears to refer to snakes, not dinosaurs. (Psalms 58:4, 140:3; Proverbs 23:32)[14]

Genesis 3:1 ¶ Now the serpent <nachash> was <hayah> more subtil <`aruwm> than any beast <chay> of the field <sadeh> which the LORD <Y@hovah> God <'elohiym> had made <`asah>. And he said <'amar> unto the woman <'ishshah>, Yea <'aph>, hath God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Ye shall not eat <'akal> of every tree <`ets> of the garden <gan>?

Genesis 3:2 And the woman <'ishshah> said <'amar> unto the serpent <nachash>, We may eat <'akal> of the fruit <p@riy> of the trees <`ets> of the garden <gan>:

Genesis 3:4 And the serpent <nachash> said <'amar> unto the woman <'ishshah>, Ye shall not surely <muwth> die <muwth>:

Genesis 3:13 And the LORD <Y@hovah> God <'elohiym> said <'amar> unto the woman <'ishshah>, What is this that thou hast done <`asah>? And the woman <'ishshah> said <'amar>, The serpent <nachash> beguiled me <nasha'>, and I did eat <'akal>.

Genesis 3:14 ¶ And the LORD <Y@hovah> God <'elohiym> said <'amar> unto the serpent <nachash>, Because thou <'attah> hast done <`asah> this, thou art cursed <'arar> above all cattle <b@hemah>, and above every beast <chay> of the field <sadeh>; upon thy belly <gachown> shalt thou go <yalak>, and dust <`aphar> shalt thou eat <'akal> all the days <yowm> of thy life <chay>:

Genesis 49:17 Dan <Dan> shall be a serpent <nachash> by the way <derek>, an adder <sh@phiyphon> in the path <'orach>, that biteth <nashak> the horse <cuwc> heels <`aqeb>, so that his rider <rakab> shall fall <naphal> backward <'achowr>.

Exodus 4:3 And he said <'amar>, Cast <shalak> it on the ground <'erets>. And he cast <shalak> it on the ground <'erets>, and it became a serpent <nachash>; and Moses <Mosheh> fled <nuwc> from before <paniym> it.

Exodus 7:15 Get <yalak> thee unto Pharaoh <Par`oh> in the morning <boqer>; lo, he goeth out <yatsa'> unto the water <mayim>; and thou shalt stand <natsab> by the river's <y@`or> brink <saphah> against he come <qir'ah>; and the rod <matteh> which was turned <haphak> to a serpent <nachash> shalt thou take <laqach> in thine hand <yad>.

Numbers 21:6 And the LORD <Y@hovah> sent <shalach> fiery <saraph> serpents <nachash> among the people <`am>, and they bit <nashak> the people <`am>; and much <rab> people <`am> of Israel <Yisra'el> died <muwth>.

Numbers 21:7 Therefore the people <`am> came <bow'> to Moses <Mosheh>, and said <'amar>, We have sinned <chata'>, for we have spoken <dabar> against the LORD <Y@hovah>, and against thee; pray <palal> unto the LORD <Y@hovah>, that he take away <cuwr> the serpents <nachash> from us. And Moses <Mosheh> prayed <palal> for the people <`am>.

Numbers 21:9 And Moses <Mosheh> made <`asah> a serpent <nachash> of brass <n@chosheth>, and put <suwm> it upon a pole <nec>, and it came to pass, that if a serpent <nachash> had bitten <nashak> any man <'iysh>, when he beheld <nabat> the serpent <nachash> of brass <n@chosheth>, he lived <chayay>.

Deuteronomy 8:15 Who led <yalak> thee through that great <gadowl> and terrible <yare'> wilderness <midbar>, wherein were fiery <saraph> serpents <nachash>, and scorpions <`aqrab>, and drought <tsimma'own>, where there was no water <mayim>; who brought thee forth <yatsa'> water <mayim> out of the rock <tsuwr> of flint <challamiysh>;

2 Kings 18:4 He removed <cuwr> the high places <bamah>, and brake <shabar> the images <matstsebah>, and cut down <karath> the groves <'asherah>, and brake in pieces <kathath> the brasen <n@chosheth> serpent <nachash> that Moses <Mosheh> had made <`asah>: for unto those days <yowm> the children <ben> of Israel <Yisra'el> did burn incense <qatar> to it: and he called <qara'> it Nehushtan <N@chushtan>.

Job 26:13 By his spirit <ruwach> he hath garnished <shiphrah> the heavens <shamayim>; his hand <yad> hath formed <chuwl> the crooked <bariyach> serpent <nachash>.

Psalms 58:4 Their poison <chemah> is like <d@muwth> the poison <chemah> of a serpent <nachash>: they are like the deaf <cheresh> adder <pethen> that stoppeth <'atam> her ear <'ozen>;

Psalms 140:3 They have sharpened <shanan> their tongues <lashown> like a serpent <nachash>; adders <`akshuwb>' poison <chemah> is under their lips <saphah>. Selah <celah>.

Proverbs 23:32 At the last <'achariyth> it biteth <nashak> like a serpent <nachash>, and stingeth <parash> like an adder <tsepha`>.

Proverbs 30:19 The way <derek> of an eagle <nesher> in the air <shamayim>; the way <derek> of a serpent <nachash> upon a rock <tsuwr>; the way <derek> of a ship <'oniyah> in the midst <leb> of the sea <yam>; and the way <derek> of a man <geber> with a maid <`almah>.

Ecclesiastes 10:8 He that diggeth <chaphar> a pit <guwmmats> shall fall <naphal> into it; and whoso breaketh <parats> an hedge <gader>, a serpent <nachash> shall bite <nashak> him.

Ecclesiastes 10:11 Surely the serpent <nachash> will bite <nashak> without enchantment <lachash>; and a babbler <lashown> <ba`al> is no better <yithrown>.

Isaiah 14:29 Rejoice <samach> not thou, whole Palestina <P@lesheth>, because the rod <shebet> of him that smote <nakah> thee is broken <shabar>: for out of the serpent's <nachash> root <sheresh> shall come forth <yatsa'> a cockatrice <tsepha`>, and his fruit <p@riy> shall be a fiery <saraph> flying <`uwph> serpent <saraph>.

Isaiah 27:1 ¶ In that day <yowm> the LORD <Y@hovah> with his sore <qasheh> and great <gadowl> and strong <chazaq> sword <chereb> shall punish <paqad> leviathan <livyathan> the piercing <bariyach> serpent <nachash>, even leviathan <livyathan> that crooked <`aqallathown> serpent <nachash>; and he shall slay <harag> the dragon <tanniyn> that is in the sea <yam>.

Isaiah 65:25 The wolf <z@'eb> and the lamb <taleh> shall feed <ra`ah> together <'echad>, and the lion <'ariy> shall eat <'akal> straw <teben> like the bullock <baqar>: and dust <`aphar> shall be the serpent's <nachash> meat <lechem>. They shall not hurt <ra`a`> nor destroy <shachath> in all my holy <qodesh> mountain <har>, saith <'amar> the LORD <Y@hovah>.

Jeremiah 8:17 For, behold, I will send <shalach> serpents <nachash>, cockatrices <tsepha`>, among you, which will not be charmed <lachash>, and they shall bite <nashak> you, saith <n@'um> the LORD <Y@hovah>.

Jeremiah 46:22 The voice <qowl> thereof shall go <yalak> like a serpent <nachash>; for they shall march <yalak> with an army <chayil>, and come <bow'> against her with axes <qardom>, as hewers <chatab> of wood <`ets>.

Amos 5:19 As if a man <'iysh> did flee <nuwc> from <paniym> a lion <'ariy>, and a bear <dob> met <paga`> him; or went <bow'> into the house <bayith>, and leaned <camak> his hand <yad> on the wall <qiyr>, and a serpent <nachash> bit <nashak> him.

Amos 9:3 And though they hide <chaba'> themselves in the top <ro'sh> of Carmel <Karmel>, I will search <chaphas> and take them out <laqach> thence; and though they be hid <cathar> from my sight <`ayin> in the bottom <qarqa`> of the sea <yam>, thence will I command <tsavah> the serpent <nachash>, and he shall bite <nashak> them:

Micah 7:17 They shall lick <lachak> the dust <`aphar> like a serpent <nachash>, they shall move <ragaz> out of their holes <micgereth> like worms <zachal> of the earth <'erets>: they shall be afraid <pachad> of the LORD <Y@hovah> our God <'elohiym>, and shall fear <yare'> because of thee.


  1. Speer, B.; Hutchison, J.; et. al. "Dinosauria: Morphology." University of California: Berkeley.
  2. Than, K. (2011, August 9). "Why Giant Bugs Once Roamed the Earth." National Geographic.
  3. Keely, Chris (2001, March 31). "Dr. Baugh and the Pre-Flood Environment." KeelyNet.
  4. Than, Ker (2011, August 8). "Why Giant Bugs Once Roamed the Earth." National Geographic.
    Choi, C.Q. (2006, October 10). "More Oxygen Could Make Giant Bugs." LiveScience.
  5. Martin, Jobe (1994, 2002). "Evolution of a Creationist." Chapter 7. Biblical Discipleship Publishers.
  6. Hamashige, H. (2007, July 30). "Giant Bugs a Thing of the Past, Study Suggests." National Geographic.
  7. Stratton, C. (2010, October 29). "Raising Giant Insects to Unravel Ancient Oxygen." The Geological Society of America.Also at ScienceDaily.
  8. BBC News Devon (2011, August 4). "Plymouth Scientists' Oxygen 'Key' to Gigantic Insects.
  9. (2012, October 15). "Paleontologists Reveal the Identity of ‘Predator X.'" National Geographic.
  10. "Tanniyn: The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon." BibleStudyTools.
  11. "Livyathan: The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon." BibleStudyTools.
  12. "Behemowth: The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon." BibleStudyTools.
  13. "Saraph: The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon." Bible Study Tools.
  14. "Nachash: The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon." Bible Study Tools.