Scientific Evidence

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The Bible accurately described aspects of science thousands of years before modern science finally caught up. It also described elements of science that could not possibly have been known at the time apart from divine revelation.

For example, Genesis 7:11 mentions fountains of the Great Deep that served as a major source of water for the Flood. Science is just now verifying that the inner Earth does indeed hold vast amounts of water after years of atheists falsely claiming there's not enough water on Earth for a Flood.

The Bible also accurately mentions God spreading out the Heavens like a tent to dwell in. (Isaiah 40:22) In 1998 the Hubble Telescope verified that the universe is expanding at a rapidly accelerating pace in defiance of all predictions. The concepts of dark energy and dark matter were then proposed as a way to explain the rapid expansion, expansion that is consistent with what the Bible said over 2,500 years earlier.

The Bible describes zero gravity in space, with God hanging the Earth on nothing. (Job 26:7) The Bible also states that Earth has four jet streams and four hemispheres (Revelation 7:1; 20:1). This degree of knowledge of outer space and global meteorology could only have been known through divine revelation.

The Mosaic Law's prohibitions resulted in advanced medical knowledge thousands of years before modern medicine. Long before Louis Pasteur's discovery of disease transmission in the 1800s the Old Testament well before 1000 B.C. recognized that touching the blood and bodily fluids of the diseased causes infection, touching surfaces that the infected have touched transmits disease, and mandated washing and quarantine for treatment.

For archaeological evidence verifying the Biblical account see Archaeological Evidence and for evidence supporting the accurate transmission of the Biblical text see Manuscript Evidence. Evidence for creationism is at Creationism and evidence for the Flood at Noah's Flood Evidence. For dinosaurs in the Bible see Dinosaurs.

Hydrology

Ocean Currents

Matthew Maury, often considered the father of hydrology, discovered ocean currents based on Psalms 8:8.[1] Modern science only caught up to the Bible because of what was written over 3,500 years earlier.

Psalms 8:8 The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.

Water Cycle

Solomon accurately described the water cycle in the book of Ecclesiastes roughly 3,000 years ago.

Ecclesiastes 1:7 All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again.

Fountains of the Deep

For evidence of the Flood, see Noah's Flood Evidence

The Bible states that fountains of the Great Deep were a major source of water for the Flood.

Genesis 7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.

Over 3,500 years later science is just now catching up to the Bible, and finding out that vast amounts of water are locked inside Earth, possibly even more water inside the Earth than outside. This has not stopped atheists from falsely claiming that there is not enough water for a Flood to have occurred.

"Geologists have long mused about the origin of earth’s seas. Did water, for example, arrive from somewhere else — like on icy comets that struck the planet? Or did water come from somewhere within? The recent discovery of a subterranean sea, deep inside earth, has scientists excited about the latter possibility. Like something out of early 19th century playwright Jules Verne’s novel, Journey to the Center of the Earth — in which characters stumble across a massive underground basin — a team of geologists led by Steven Jacobsen from Northwestern University have found a vast body of water, three times the size of any ocean, located near earth’s core. It’s possible that water from this enormous reservoir oozed to the surface."

-Melissa Hellmann, "There's a Huge Underground Ocean That Could Explain the Origin of the Seas," TIME Magazine[2]

Science has been gradually discovering that the Bible, so widely mocked as being wrong about a global Flood, was correct about the conditions of the Earth over 3,500 years before modern science.

  • In March 2002 National Geographic reported the discovery, through laboratory studies replicating the conditions of the Earth's core, that there may well be more water within the Earth than outside it - as much as five times more.[3]
  • In February 2007 National Geographic reported the discovery, made via sonar, of a large amount of water equivalent in size to the Atlantic Ocean locked deep below the Earth's surface, contained in wet rocks. While the National Geographic article downplayed the water's relevance to a Noahic Flood by suggesting rocks contained less than 0.1% water, newer discoveries suggest the real figure is around 1.5%.[4]
  • In March 2014 a rare diamond was discovered containing ringwoodite, a mineral formed only by the intense subsurface pressures within the Earth's mantle. The diamond also was composed of 1.5% water, indicating that there is a substantial amount of water deep within the Earth. [5]
  • In June 2014 Time Magazine, PBS, and other news agencies publicized the discovery of a massive subterranean ocean, three times the size of any ocean on Earth's surface, that could prove the source for the world's seas. [6]

Furthermore these discoveries are in addition to already-identified fossil aquifers such as the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, Ogallala Aquifer, and Kalahari Desert Aquifers which contain massive amounts of ancient freshwater locked deep below the Earth's surface.

Meteorology

Four Jet Streams

There are two polar jets and two subtropical jets according to the National Weather Service.[7]

"There are four major jet streams. Although discontinuous at some points, they circle the globe at middle and polar latitudes, both in each hemisphere. The mean position of the stream in the Northern Hemisphere is between lat. 20 and 50 degrees N; the polar stream is between lat 30 and 70 degrees N."[8]

The Bible correctly states there are four jet streams.

Revelation 7:1 And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree.

Wind Currents

The Bible accurately described wind currents roughly 3,000 years before modern meteorology.

Ecclesiastes 1:6 The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to his circuits.

Clouds

Job 26:8 He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds; and the cloud is not rent under them.

Medicine

Old Testament laws provided advanced knowledge of medicine to prevent infection over 3,000 years before modern medicine. Such laws contained advanced knowledge of disease transmission to prevent direct contact, droplet spread, and indirect contact. The laws provided an extensive medical approach to avoiding disease transmission through sexual contact, bloodborne transmission, fecal-oral transmission, and waterborne transmission.

Direct Contact

  • Touching infected diseased materials or persons was prohibited to prevent the spread of disease. (Lev. 5:2-3) As a general rule, touching anything diseased required washing and quarantine afterwards. (Lev. 20:5-6)
  • Specific treatments for different diseases were prescribed, along with quarantine methods to prevent diseases from spreading. (Lev. 13)
  • Quarantining houses to stop mold was practiced. (Lev. 14:37-46) Washing clothes of those who entered the houses was prescribed. (Lev. 14:47)
  • It was recognized that the discharges from diseased sores spread infections. Everything they touched was to be considered unclean, and they were to wash with "running water" (v. 13) and be quarantined afterwards. (Lev. 1-13) It was also recognized that saliva from spit would spread the disease. (v. 8)

Dietary

Eating animals more likely to carry diseases was prohibited. (Lev. 11) Touching the dead carcasses was prohibited (vv. 24-25). Anything that touched them was to be considered unclean and avoided, including food and water (vv. 32-35). Those who touched diseased animals were to be considered unclean until the evening (v. 39). Washing and quarantine was commanded for those that ate them. (vv. 39-40) Eating raw or undercooked pork for example is known to cause a serious disease called trichinosis.[9]

Transmission of blood-borne pathogens was prevented by a prohibition on eating food with the blood. Those who violated the commandment had to undergo washing and quarantine. (Lev. 17:10-16)

Drinking blood was prohibited. Today it is known that doing so causes haemochromatosis by increasing iron levels to toxic levels.[10]

Childbirth

Post-partum disease transmission was prevented by quarantine for women after birth. (Lev. 12)

STD Prevention

  • STD transmission was prevented by restrictions on sexual contact with the infected as well as washing and quarantining of the diseased. The increased likelihood of disease transmission due to menstrual blood was also acknowledged. (Lev. 15:16-33; 20:18) Lifestyles that increase STDs and birth defects such as incest, homosexuality, and bestiality were also prohibited. (Lev. 20)
  • Disposal of human waste by burying it away from campsites (catholes) to prevent disease spread was practiced. (Deuteronomy 23:12-13)

Geology

Four Hemispheres of the Earth

The Bible accurately states that the Earth has four hemispheres, or quarters of the Earth.

Revelation 20:8 And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.

Human Physiology

The Bible accurately stated both the average lifespan and maximal lifespan for mankind over 3,000 years ago. And 3,000 years ago this remains as accurate a description of human physiology as it was then.

70 Year Average Lifespan

Psalms 90:10 The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.

120 Year Maximum Lifespan

Genesis 6:3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.

Microevolution

For evidence relating to Creationism, see Creationism

Microevolution from core created kinds was commanded to all life in Genesis 1:11-12,21,24-25. The Hebrew word translated kinds is the Hebrew miyn meaning species.[11]

Genesis 1:11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.
12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

Genesis 1:21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

Genesis 1:24 ¶ And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.
25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

Bipedalism

See Creationism for more info

That humans were created in present form from molecules, not monkeys (KJV 'dust,' Genesis 2:7 from the Heb. 'aphar) and never looked anything like modern apes, consistent with Genesis 2, has been evident since 2009 with the discovery of ardipithecus ramidus. The discoveries of sahelanthropus tchadensis and orrorin tugenensis likewise show that early humans were in an advanced stage of evolution similar to modern man, and has led to the acknowledgements that australopithecus afarensis (aka Lucy) and homo erectus walked upright. The book of Genesis was right about this over 3,500 years before modern science finally got it right.

Cosmology

The design of the universe contains strong evidence for the existence of God.

Zero Gravity

A lack of gravity in space, with Earth hanging on nothing, is described in Job 26:7.

Job 26:7 He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.

Accelerating Expansion of the Universe

The Bible accurately described God spreading out the Heavens like a tent to dwell in, similar to the oft-used concept of the universe expanding like a loaf of raisin bread dough.[12]

Isaiah 40:22 It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in:

According to conventional Big Bang theory, the galaxies and planets are all separating from a central blast area or Big Bang, as the universe expands outward from its original explosion point. However, if this were true then the expansion of the universe should be decelerating, and it is not. In fact, the expansion of the universe is getting faster, contrary to all theoretical predictions, and science has been forced to create theoretical, unevidenced constructs called Dark Matter and Dark Energy that supposedly make up 95% of the universe. However, we have yet to find direct evidence for them.

"In the early 1990's, one thing was fairly certain about the expansion of the Universe. It might have enough energy density to stop its expansion and recollapse, it might have so little energy density that it would never stop expanding, but gravity was certain to slow the expansion as time went on. Granted, the slowing had not been observed, but, theoretically, the Universe had to slow. The Universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. Then came 1998 and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae that showed that, a long time ago, the Universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. So the expansion of the Universe has not been slowing due to gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating. No one expected this, no one knew how to explain it. But something was causing it."[13]

If the expansion of the universe were just due to a naturalistic Big Bang, then expansion certainly should not be accelerating. That it does so is consistent with what the Bible says about a Creator who spreads out the Heavens.

Job 9:8 Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea.

Psalms 104:2 Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain:

Isaiah 44:24 Thus saith the LORD, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the LORD that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;

Isaiah 45:12 I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.

Zechariah 12:1 The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, saith the LORD, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him.

Lack of Antimatter

There should be more antimatter in the universe relative to matter according to conventional Big Bang theory, yet this prediction has not been borne out by scientific discovery. There is far too much matter and not enough antimatter.

"The big bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the early universe. But today, everything we see from the smallest life forms on Earth to the largest stellar objects is made almost entirely of matter. Comparatively, there is not much antimatter to be found."[14]

This is evidence that Big Bang theory is not the correct answer, and that spontaneous generation of matter is not what created life that we see today.

Singularities and the Big Bang

The only way to argue for a Big Bang is positing a singularity where, according to Stephen Hawking, all the laws of physics broke down. There still remains no way to argue for a Big Bang apart from a Creator without denying the laws of physics as they currently exist.

"At a singularity, all the laws of physics would have broken down. This means that the state of the universe, after the Big Bang, will not depend on anything that may have happened before, because the deterministic laws that govern the universe will break down in the Big Bang. The universe will evolve from the Big Bang, completely independently of what it was like before. Even the amount of matter in the universe, can be different to what it was before the Big Bang, as the Law of Conservation of Matter, will break down at the Big Bang."
-Stephen Hawking[15]

Planet Formation

In June 2014 a massive planet, Kepler-10c, was discovered weighing twice as much as earth and over twice as large which defies Big Bang theory and has puzzled astronomers accordingly.

"Astronomers have discovered a rocky planet that weighs 17 times as much as Earth and is more than twice as large in size. This discovery has planet formation theorists challenged to explain how such a world could have formed... It was thought worlds such as this could not possibly exist. The enormous gravitational force of such a massive body would accrete a gas envelope during formation, ballooning the planet to a gas giant the size of Neptune or even Jupiter. However, this planet is thought to be solid, composed primarily of rock."[16]

Where does matter come from?

According to the second law of thermodynamics, matter decays. Matter is temporal, not self-existent. If matter could pop into nowhere from nothing we should see little big bangs occurring in the universe all the time, but not once have we ever witnessed such an occurrence. See also the law of conservation of energy which states that energy in an isolated system cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change form. For there to have been a Big Bang where particles collided, you must first explain where particles came from when multiple laws of the universe show the temporal nature of matter should not allow it to self-exist.

The atheist will doubtless ask where God comes from, but this inherently assumes God would be bound by the same physical laws that make a purely physical beginning impossible! Only by inferring the existence of another dimension like the spiritual and an intelligent, self-existent being like God can one explain where anything physical could come from. In other words, while the physical cannot be self-existent or eternal, a spiritual dimension would not necessarily involve the same limitations, and as such a spiritual being would be outside the laws of physics that make Big Bang theory in its current form impossible.

Ethics

Where does good come from?

A powerful argument most moral people can accept for God's existence is made by Ravi Zacharias in 'Jesus Among Other Gods' and other of his books.[17] Ravi points out that the critic who accuses God of allowing evil in the world is actually inferring the existence of good as well, for how can there be evil without good? After this, it is necessary to point out that for there to be good and evil in the universe, there must be a moral law by which they exist. But if there is a moral law, then there must be a powerful, moral lawgiver as well. As Ravi puts it,

"When you say there is evil, aren't you admitting there is good? When you accept the existence of goodness, you must affirm a moral law on the basis of which to differentiate between good and evil. But when you admit to a moral law, you must posit a moral lawgiver. That, however, is who you are trying to disprove and not prove. For if there is no moral lawgiver, there is no moral law. If there is no moral law, there is no good. If there is no good, there is no evil. What then is your question?"[17]

"You may ask, Why does assuming a moral law necessitate a moral lawgiver? Because every time the question of evil is raised, it is either by a person or about a person—and that implicitly assumes that the question is a worthy one. But it is a worthy question only if people have intrinsic worth, and the only reason people have intrinsic worth is that they are the creations of One who is of ultimate worth. That person is God. So the question self-​destructs for the naturalist or the pantheist. The question of the morality of evil or pain is valid only for a theist."[18]

Essentially Ravi in his second point is making an argument that the intrinsic worth of human beings that allows us to assume they have inalienable rights is of necessity founded on the belief that God is the one who gives them those rights. That explains why the founding fathers like Jefferson and Madison when discussing inalienable rights referred frequently to a Creator, including in the Declaration of Independence, which states, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."[19] You can't ask why evil occurs to people without assuming people have inherent worth and value, inalienable rights. But that assumes they were created by God with those rights and given those rights and inherent value by God.

For more by Ravi on the subject see the following:

Prophecy

Friedrich Nietzsche

Main Article: Nietzsche's Prophecy

For clear evidence of modern prophecy, see the circumstances of Friedrich Nietzsche's death. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) is a famous 19th-century German atheist best known for his claim that "God is dead." Nietzsche ironically died in a fit of madness during which he prophesied the persecution of Jews during World War II to come 5 decades later; possibly the most obvious example of supernatural prophecy and divine punishment in recent times. As such it appears the God of the Bible supernaturally used Friedrich Nietzsche in a manner similar to the Biblical examples of Nebuchadnezzar, Saul, and Paul to warn His people of Hitler half a century before World War II.

After writing his final complete work in 1883, The Antichrist, Curse on Christianity,[20] Nietzsche would go insane in 1889, exactly 50 years before the start of World War II,[21] during which he would prophetically predict a coming Hitlerian society and Nazi Germany. As H.L. Mencken puts it, "Save for his raucous, rhapsodical autobiography, 'Ecce Homo,' 'The Antichrist' is the last thing that Nietzsche ever wrote, and so it may be accepted as a statement of some of his most salient ideas in their final form."[22]

Nietzsche, early in January 1889, saw a coachman flogging a horse, and rushed towards it. Throwing his arms around the horse, Nietzsche collapsed in unconsciousness, and was carried home. In a fit of insanity, he mailed several letters before dying on August 25, 1900, from pneumonia.[23] These letters included the following:

"To my maestro Pietro. Sing me a new-song: the world is transfigured and all the heavens are full of joy. -The Crucified"

-Friedrich Nietzsche to Gast, January 4, 1889[24]

"You may make any use of this letter which will not degrade me in the eyes of those at Basel. I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. Also, last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner. Wilhelm, Bismarck, and all anti-Semites abolished."

-Friedrich Nietzsche to Jacob Burkhardt, January 6, 1889[25]

In other letters, Nietzsche also commanded the German emperor to go to Rome to be shot, and summoned the European powers to take military action against Germany.[26] Nietzsche prophesied the coming of an anti-Semitic Germany when he said, "Wilhelm, Bismarck, and all anti-Semites abolished." Wilhelm II would become the Emperor of Germany just months after Nietzsche wrote this, and replace Otto von Bismarck, the nationalistic German Chancellor who'd unified Germany. By giving the names of the German rulers at the time and referring to them as anti-Semites he correctly predicted the persecution of the Jewish people by Nazi Germany. By stating "I have had Caiaphas put in fetters" Nietzsche correctly predicted the mass imprisonment of Jews across Germany that would be coming. Caiaphas was the Jewish high priest at the time of Jesus (Matthew 26:3). Nietzsche was thus saying the Jewish leader was being imprisoned.

Nietzsche in his letter stated, "Also, last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner." This correctly predicted the heinous atrocities of German doctors in Nazi Germany, most notably the sinister Joseph Mengele, who experimented on Jewish people and engaged in unprecedented war crimes. In separate letters Nietzsche commanded the German emperor to go to Rome to be shot and commanded the European powers to take military action against Germany. This preciseness in predicting the coming World Wars against Germany is unusual.

Thus, for all his criticism of God, Christianity, and the supernatural, Nietzsche would end his life in a fit of madness prophesying the coming of World War II in warning to the Jewish people, accurately predicting German doctor Joseph Mengele, antisemitism, and the threat of Germany to the free world, all while referring to himself as "The Crucified." Nietzsche accurately prophesied the following half a century before World War II:

Seventy Weeks

A prophecy in Daniel 9:25-27 accurately predicted down to the exact year when the Messiah was to come. Furthermore, it is preserved by the Dead Sea Scrolls centuries before Jesus came. The prophecy of the Seventy Weeks starts from the rebuilding of the wall in Jerusalem, which is known from Nehemiah 2 to have occurred in 445 B.C.[27] Sixty-nine weeks of years would pass before the coming of the Messiah, or 483 years from this point. This perfectly corresponds to the coming of Jesus.

As if there were any doubt left, the coming of the Messiah was to be followed by destruction of Jerusalem and the temple which would cause temple sacrifice to stop. This was fulfilled by Nero's destruction of the temple in 70 A.D.[28]

Daniel 9:25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.

Nehemiah 2:1 ¶ And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him: and I took up the wine, and gave it unto the king. Now I had not been beforetime sad in his presence.

Nehemiah 2:5 And I said unto the king, If it please the king, and if thy servant have found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldest send me unto Judah, unto the city of my fathers' sepulchres, that I may build it.

Evidence for Miracles

Church Fire Leaves Crosses Unscathed

In 2019, a church fire miraculous left crosses and Bibles unscathed among the rubble of a destroyed building.[29]

"Firefighters who responded to a fire at a West Virginia church Sunday said they were stunned to find that the massive blaze had left the sanctuary's Bibles and crosses unscathed. 'Picture this, a building so hot that at one point in time, firefighters had to back out. ... Not a single bible was burned and not a single cross was harmed,' the Coal City Fire Department posted on Facebook after responding to the early morning fire at the Freedom Ministries Church. 'Everything should be burned, ashes,' the post said."

-Elisha Fieldstadt, "Bibles and Crosses Unscathed in Devastating West Virginia Church Fire," NBC News[29]

References

  1. The Interactive Bible (n.d.). The Bible: God's Inspired Message to Man. Accessed July 7th, 2014.
  2. Hellmann, M. (2014, June 13). "There's a Huge Underground Ocean That Could Explain the Origin of the Seas." TIME Magazine.
  3. Harder, B. (2002, March 7). "Inner Earth May Hold More Water Than the Seas." National Geographic.
  4. Lovett, R.A. (2007, February 27). "Huge Underground "Ocean" Found Beneath Asia." National Geographic.
  5. Oskin, B. (2014, March 12). "Rare Diamond Confirms That Earth's Mantle Holds an Ocean's Worth of Water. Scientific American.
  6. Hellman, M. (2014, June 13). "There's a Huge Underground Ocean That Could Explain the Origin of Seas." Time Magazine.
    Nelson, E. (2014, June 13). "Huge Underground Reservoir Holds Three Times as Much Water as Earth’s Oceans. PBS.
    Richie, L.C. (2014, June 15). "Deep Underground, Oceans Of Water May Be Trapped In A Crystal 'Sponge'. NPR.
  7. The Jet Stream. National Weather Service]. Retrieved July 7th, 2014.
  8. "jet stream." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2013. Encyclopedia.com. (July 7, 2014).
  9. Global Health Division of Parasitic Diseases (2012, August 8). "Trichinellosis FAQs." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  10. Radford, B. (2016, June 6). "Is It Safe to Drink Blood?" LiveScience.
  11. Brown, Driver, Briggs, & Gesenius. "The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon: Miyn." BibleStudyTools.
  12. Everyday Mysteries (2018, September 27). "What Does It Mean When They Say the Universe is Expanding?" Library of Congress.
  13. Dark Energy, Dark Matter (n.d.). NASA. Retrieved July 7th, 2014.
  14. "Matter/antimatter asymmetry." The European Council for Nuclear Research.
  15. Hawking, Stephen. "The Beginning of Time." Official Website of Stephen Hawking.
  16. Clavin, W. (2014, June 2). Astronomers Confounded by Massive Rocky World. NASA. Retrieved July 7th, 2014.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Zacharias, Ravi (1994). Can Man Live Without God. Word Publishing. Retrieved from http://xwalk.ca/evil.html.
  18. Zacharias, Ravi (2012, February 26). Into God's Arms. Retrieved from http://www.rzim.org/a-slice-of-infinity/into-gods-arms/.
  19. Jefferson, Thomas (1776, July 4). Declaration of Independence. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_transcript.html.
  20. Wicks, Robert (2011, April 29). "Friedrich Nietzsche." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  21. Burns, K. & Novick, L. (2007, September). "The War." Florentine Films and WETA-TV. PBS.
  22. Nietzsche, F.W. (1920). "The Antichrist." Library of the University of Virginia.
  23. Kaufman, Walter (1954). "The Portable Nietzsche." p. 684. Penguin Books.
  24. The Portable Nietzsche, p. 685.
  25. The Portable Nietzsche, pp. 685-687.
  26. Zweig, Stefan (1939) Master Builders trilogy, The Struggle with the Daimon, Viking Press, p. 524.
    Wikipedia. "Friedrich Nietzsche: Mental Breakdown and Death." Accessed May 12, 2012.
  27. Willette, D. (2019, February 5). "Nehemiah: The Man Behind the Wall." Biblical Archaeology Society.
  28. Lohnes, K. (2018, August 29). "Siege of Jerusalem." Encyclopedia Britannica.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Fieldstadt, E. (2019, March 5). "Bibles and Crosses Unscathed in Devastating West Virginia Church Fire." NBC News.